Last updated on: 11/20/2018 | Author:

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):

  1. American Dietetic Association, “Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets,”  Journal of the American Dietetic Association, May 27, 2009
  2. Vernon R. Young and Peter L. Pellett, “Plant Proteins in Relation to Human Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1994
  3. Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Instututes of Health, “Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron,” (accessed Dec. 13, 2010)
  4. Aloys L.A. Sesink, Denise S.M.L. Termont, et al., “Red Meat and Colon Cancer: The Cytotoxic and Hyperproliferative Effects of Dietary Heme,” Cancer Research, Nov. 15, 1999
  5. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), “Protecting Your Bones,” (accessed Dec. 13, 2010)
  6. David S. Goldfarb and Fredric L. Cole, “Prevention of Recurrent Nephrolithiasis,” American Family Physician, Nov. 15, 1999
  7. Timothy J. Key, et al., “Mortality in Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians: Detailed Findings from a Collaborative Analysis of 5 Prospective Studies,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999
  8. Paul N. Appleby, Gwyneth K. Davey, and Timothy J. Key, “Hypertension and Blood Pressure Among Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans in EPIC-Oxford,” Public Health Nutrition, 2002
  9. Yiqing Song, et al., “A Prospective Study of Red Meat Consumption and Type 2 Disbetes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Women,” Diabetes Care, 2004
  10. David JA Jenkins, Cyril WC Kendall, and Augustine Marchie, et al., “Type 2 Diabetes and the Vegetarian Diet,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003
  11. EA Spencer, et al., “Diet and Body Mass Index in 38,000 EPIC-Oxford Meat-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans,” International Journal of Obesity, 2003
  12. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), “Vegetarian Foods: Powerful for Health,” (accessed Dec. 23, 2010)
  13. Timothy J. Key, et al., “Health Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2006
  14. Christopher Joyce, “Food for Thought: Meat-Based Diet Made Us Smarter,”, Aug. 3, 2010
  15. Courtney Hutchison, “Nutritionist Does Twinkie and Steak Diet, Loses Weight,”, Sep. 30, 2010
  16. World Wildlife Fund (WWF), “How Low Can We Go? An Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the UK Food System and the Scope for Reduction by 2050,”, Jan. 18, 2010
  17. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), “Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options,”, Nov. 29, 2006
  18. US Department of Agriculture (USDA), “Import Share of US Food Consumption Stable at 11%,”, July 2003
  19. US Department of Agriculture (USDA), “US Forest Facts and Historical Trends,”, Sep. 2001
  20. Greenpeace, “Amazon Cattle Footprint – Mato Grosso: State of Destruction,”, Jan. 29, 2009
  21. Reuters, “US Clears Brazil’s SC Beef, Pork Imports,”, Nov. 16, 2010
  22. John Robbins, “The Food Revolution: Once Upon a Planet, Part I,”, Nov. 11, 2007
  23. Association of Brazilian Beef Exporters, “Export Report – 2009,” (accessed Jan. 13, 2011)
  24. Nathan Fiala, “The Greenhouse Hamburger,” Scientific American, Feb. 2009
  25. Marcia Kreith, “Water Inputs in California Food Production,”, Sep. 27, 1991
  26. US Department of Agriculture (USDA), “US Beef and Cattle Industry: Background Statistics and Information,”, July 10, 2010
  27. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, “The Environment and Cattle Production: Fact Sheet,” (accessed Jan. 13, 2011)
  28. Lester R. Brown, “Growing Demand for Soybeans Threatens Amazon Rainforest,”, Dec. 30, 2009
  29. Thomas L. Fleischner, “Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America,” Conservation Biology, Sep. 1994
  30. Peter S. Thorne, “Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Feb. 2007
  31. New York Times, “We Are What We Eat,”, Sep. 21, 2010
  32. Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, “Putting Meat on the Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America,”, Apr. 28, 2008
  33. Polly Walker, Pamela Rhubart-Berg, Shawn McKenzie, Kristin Kelling, and Robert S Lawrence, “Public Health Implications of Meat Production and Consumption,” Journal of Public Health Nutrition, Mar. 2, 2005
  34. Humane Society of the United States, “Cruel Slaughter Practices,” (accessed Jan. 17, 2011)
  35. Humane Society of the United States, “Undercover at Smithfield Foods,” (accessed Jan. 17, 2011)
  36. Farm Sanctuary, “The Welfare of Cattle in Beef Production,” (accessed Jan. 17, 2011)
  37. Lynne U. Sneddon, et al., “Do Fishes Have Nociceptors? Evidence for the Evolution of a Vertebrate Sensory System,” Proceedings of the Royal Academy of London, Apr. 30, 2003
  38. Boris Worm, et al., “Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services,” Science, Nov. 3, 2006
  39. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “What You Need to Know about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish,”, May 24, 2004
  40. Mary J. Gilchrist, Christina Greko, David B. Wallinga, et al., “The Potential Role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations in Infectious Disease Epidemics and Antibiotic Resistance“, Environmental Health Perspectives, Feb. 2007
  41. Doug Gurian-Sherman, “CAFOs Uncovered: The Untold Costs of Confined Animal Feeding Operations,”, Apr. 2008
  42. David Pimentel and Marcia Pimentel, “Sustainability of Meat-Based and Plant-Based Diets and the Environment,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003
  43. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, “US Soybean Production: A Comparison of Sustainable Production Systems for Conventional, Biotech, and Organic Soybeans,”, Apr. 2009
  44. Union of Concerned Scientists, “Roundup Ready Soybeans,” (accessed Jan. 19, 2011)
  45. David Pimentel, “Environmental and Economic Costs of the Application of Pesticides Primarily in the United States,” Environment, Development and Sustainability, 2005
  46. Stephen Byrnes, “The Myths of Vegetarianism,”, Jan. 2002
  47. Wolfgang Hermann, et al., “Vitamin B-12 Status, Particularly Holotranscobalamin II and Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations, and Hyperhomocysteinemia in Vegetarians,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, July 2003
  48. World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, “Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective,”, 2007
  49. Sally Fallon Morell, “Know Your Fats Introduction,”, Feb. 24, 2009
  50. Laura Wyness, E. Weichselbaum, et al., “Red Meat in the Diet: An Update,” Nutrition Bulletin of the British Nutrition Foundation, Feb. 16, 2011
  51. Joseph Mercola, “If You Eat Processed Meats, Are You Risking Your Life?,”, Jan. 22, 2011
  52. Penny M. Kris-Etherton, William S. Harris, and Lawrence J. Appel, “Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease,” Journal of the American Heart Association, 2002
  53. Karen Collins, “Fish Isn’t the Only Way to Get ‘Good’ Fat Omega-3. It’s Also Found in Seeds and Nut Oils, But Is It as Effective?,”, Sep. 8, 2006
  54. Gwendolyn Barcelo-Coblijn, Eric J Murphy, Rgia Othman, et al., “Flaxseed Oil and Fish-Oil Capsule Consumption Alters Human Red Blood Cell n-3 Fatty Acid Composition,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008
  55. Sally Fallon Morell, “Twenty-Two Reasons Not to Go Vegetarian,” (accessed Mar. 7, 2011)
  56. Jenny Chang-Claude, Silke Hermann, Ursula Eilber, et al., “Lifestyle Determinants and Mortality in German Vegetarians and Health-Conscious Persons: Results of a 21-Year Follow-Up,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Apr. 11, 2005
  57. Hillary Mayell, “Evolving to Eat Mush: How Meat Changed Our Bodies,” National Geographic, Feb. 18, 2005
  58. Sally Fallon Morell and Mary G. Enig, “Vitamin A Saga,”, Mar. 29, 2002
  59. Sabrina J Hickenbottom, et al., “Variability In Conversion of Beta Carotene to Vitamin A In Men As Measured by Using a Double-Tracer Study Design,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002
  60. State Environmental Resource Center, “Biodiversity Policy Issues Package,” (accessed Mar. 9, 2011)
  61. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, “Proteins Are Not Created Equal,” beefnutrition, 2009
  62. Milton R. Mills, “The Comparative Anatomy of Eating,”, Nov. 21, 2009
  63. Katharine Milton, “A Hypothesis to Explain the Role of Meat-Eating in Human Evolution,” Evolutionary Biology, 1999
  64. Erik J. Lindbloom, “Long-Term Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet,” American Family Physician, Apr. 1, 2009
  65. Jeff Welty, “Humane Slaughter Laws,” Law and Contemporary Problems, 2007
  66. Joby Warrick, “They Die Piece by Piece: In Overtaxed Plants, Humane Treatment of Cattle Is Often a Battle Lost,” Washington Post, Apr. 10, 2001
  67. Vegetarian Times, “Vegetarianism In America,” (accessed Mar. 10, 2011)
  68. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans,”, 1995
  69. Carole Davis and Etta Saltos, “Dietary Recommendations and How They Have Changed Over Time,” (accessed Mar. 10, 2011)
  70. Jan Parr, The Young Vegetarian’s Companion, 1996
  71. David Hurwitz, “Leonardo da Vinci’s Ethical Vegetarianism,”, July 19, 2002
  72. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), “About PETA,” (accessed Apr. 4, 2013)
  73. Roger Segelken, “Campbells’ New Book Blasts Corporate-Governmental-Academic Ties,”, Jan. 20, 2005
  74. Chris Masterjohn, “The China Study by T. Colin Campbell,” Wise Traditions, June 30, 2005
  75. Justin Nobel, “The Root of Vegetarianism,” (accessed Mar. 23, 2011)
  76. Gary E. Fraser and David J. Shavlik, “Ten Years of Life: Is it a Matter of Choice?,” Archives of Internal Medicine, July 9, 2001
  77. City of Bound Brook, “Bound Brook: Home of the Graham Cracker,” (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)
  78. NNDB, “John Harvey Kellogg,” (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)
  79. PR Watch, “Intolerable Speech? What Howard Lyman Told Oprah,” (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)
  80. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), “Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy -“Mad Cow Disease,” (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)
  81. Tristram Stuart, The Bloodless Revolution: A Cultural History of Vegetarianism from 1600 to Modern Times, 2006
  82. Peggy Whittier, “Wheatless Mondays and Meatless Tuesdays,” (accessed Mar. 25, 2011)
  83. Colin Spencer, The Heretics Feast: A History of Vegetarianism, 1995
  84. Casey Roberts, Clayton Spurgeon, and John Fowler, “Characteristics of the United States Organic Beef Industry,”, July 2007
  85. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, “Organic Standards for Livestock Production: Excerpts of USDA’s National Organic Program Regulations,”, Feb. 17, 2010
  86. Pramil N. Singh, Joan Sabaté, and Gary E Fraser, “Does Low Meat Consumption Increase Life Expectancy in Humans?,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003
  87. Cargill, “High-Quality Products,” (accessed Mar. 30, 2011)
  88. Temple Grandin, “Animal Welfare in Slaughter Plants,” Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of American Association of Bovine Practitioners, 1996
  89. Ingrid Newkirk, “Temple Grandin: Helping the Animals We Can’t Save,”, Feb. 14, 2010
  90. United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Humane Methods of Slaughter Act: Weakness in USDA Enforcement,”, Mar. 4, 2010
  91. American Meat Institute, “Meat Matters: Animal Welfare in the Meat Industry,”, Oct. 2007
  92. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), “Environmental Interactions with Agricultural Production: Grazing Lands and Environmental Quality,”, Nov. 20, 2008
  93. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), and Earthjustice, “Livestock Grazing and the Environment,” (accessed Mar. 31, 2011)
  94. Center for Consumer Freedom, “About Us: What Is the Center for Consumer Freedom,” (accessed Apr. 7, 2011)
  95. Weston A. Price Foundation, “About the Foundation,”, Jan. 1, 2000
  96. Elizabeth Kolbert, “Should You Eat Meat?,” The New Yorker, Nov. 9, 2009
  97. David Martosko, “I’ll Have a Hamburger – Hold the Scare Tactics,”, July 2, 2009
  98. Derrick Jensen, “The Plants Respond: An Interview with Cleve Backster,” The Sun, July 1997
  99. Constitutional Rights Foundation, “Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle: Muckraking the Meat-Packing Industry,”, Fall 2008
  100. Temple Grandin and Mark Dessing, “Distress in Animals: Is it Fear, Pain, or Physical Stress?,”, Sep. 2003
  101. Mary Enig and Sally Fallon, “The Truth About Saturated Fats,” (accessed Apr. 12, 2011)
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  104. United Nations Environment Programme, “Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production,”, June 2010
  105. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “Global Hunger Declining, But Still Unacceptably High,”, Sep. 2010
  106. Helmi Risku-Norja, et al., “Dietary Choices and Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Assessment of Impact of Vegetarian and Organic Options at National Scale,” Progress in Industrial Ecology, 2009
  107. Roger Segelken, “US Could Feed 800 Million People with Grain That Livestock Eat,”, Aug. 7, 1997
  108. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “Hunger: Frequently Asked Questions,” (accessed Apr. 13, 2011)
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  110. Erick Schlosser, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, 2001
  111. Human Rights Watch, “Abuses Against Workers Taint US Meat and Poultry,”, Jan. 24, 2005
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  118. Steven L. Davis, “The Least Harm Principle May Require That Humans Consume a Diet Containing Large Herbivores, Not a Vegan Diet,” Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 2003
  119. David S. Martin, “From Omnivore to Vegan: The Dietary Education of Bill Clinton,”, Aug. 18, 2011
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