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Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):

    1. American Dietetic Association, “Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets,”  Journal of the American Dietetic Association, May 27, 2009
    2. Vernon R. Young and Peter L. Pellett, “Plant Proteins in Relation to Human Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1994
    3. Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Instututes of Health, “Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron,” (accessed Dec. 13, 2010)
    4. Aloys L.A. Sesink, Denise S.M.L. Termont, et al., “Red Meat and Colon Cancer: The Cytotoxic and Hyperproliferative Effects of Dietary Heme,” Cancer Research, Nov. 15, 1999
    5. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), “Protecting Your Bones,” (accessed Dec. 13, 2010)
    6. David S. Goldfarb and Fredric L. Cole, “Prevention of Recurrent Nephrolithiasis,” American Family Physician, Nov. 15, 1999
    7. Timothy J. Key, et al., “Mortality in Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians: Detailed Findings from a Collaborative Analysis of 5 Prospective Studies,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999
    8. Paul N. Appleby, Gwyneth K. Davey, and Timothy J. Key, “Hypertension and Blood Pressure Among Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans in EPIC-Oxford,” Public Health Nutrition, 2002
    9. Yiqing Song, et al., “A Prospective Study of Red Meat Consumption and Type 2 Disbetes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Women,” Diabetes Care, 2004
    10. David JA Jenkins, Cyril WC Kendall, and Augustine Marchie, et al., “Type 2 Diabetes and the Vegetarian Diet,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003
    11. EA Spencer, et al., “Diet and Body Mass Index in 38,000 EPIC-Oxford Meat-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans,” International Journal of Obesity, 2003
    12. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), “Vegetarian Foods: Powerful for Health,” (accessed Dec. 23, 2010)
    13. Timothy J. Key, et al., “Health Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2006
    14. Christopher Joyce, “Food for Thought: Meat-Based Diet Made Us Smarter,”, Aug. 3, 2010
    15. Courtney Hutchison, “Nutritionist Does Twinkie and Steak Diet, Loses Weight,”, Sep. 30, 2010
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    17. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), “Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options,”, Nov. 29, 2006
    18. US Department of Agriculture (USDA), “Import Share of US Food Consumption Stable at 11%,”, July 2003
    19. US Department of Agriculture (USDA), “US Forest Facts and Historical Trends,”, Sep. 2001
    20. Greenpeace, “Amazon Cattle Footprint – Mato Grosso: State of Destruction,”, Jan. 29, 2009
    21. Reuters, “US Clears Brazil’s SC Beef, Pork Imports,”, Nov. 16, 2010
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    24. Nathan Fiala, “The Greenhouse Hamburger,” Scientific American, Feb. 2009
    25. Marcia Kreith, “Water Inputs in California Food Production,”, Sep. 27, 1991
    26. US Department of Agriculture (USDA), “US Beef and Cattle Industry: Background Statistics and Information,”, July 10, 2010
    27. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, “The Environment and Cattle Production: Fact Sheet,” (accessed Jan. 13, 2011)
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    29. Thomas L. Fleischner, “Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America,” Conservation Biology, Sep. 1994
    30. Peter S. Thorne, “Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Feb. 2007
    31. New York Times, “We Are What We Eat,”, Sep. 21, 2010
    32. Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, “Putting Meat on the Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America,”, Apr. 28, 2008
    33. Polly Walker, Pamela Rhubart-Berg, Shawn McKenzie, Kristin Kelling, and Robert S Lawrence, “Public Health Implications of Meat Production and Consumption,” Journal of Public Health Nutrition, Mar. 2, 2005
    34. Humane Society of the United States, “Cruel Slaughter Practices,” (accessed Jan. 17, 2011)
    35. Humane Society of the United States, “Undercover at Smithfield Foods,” (accessed Jan. 17, 2011)
    36. Farm Sanctuary, “The Welfare of Cattle in Beef Production,” (accessed Jan. 17, 2011)
    37. Lynne U. Sneddon, et al., “Do Fishes Have Nociceptors? Evidence for the Evolution of a Vertebrate Sensory System,” Proceedings of the Royal Academy of London, Apr. 30, 2003
    38. Boris Worm, et al., “Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services,” Science, Nov. 3, 2006
    39. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), “What You Need to Know about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish,”, May 24, 2004
    40. Mary J. Gilchrist, Christina Greko, David B. Wallinga, et al., “The Potential Role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations in Infectious Disease Epidemics and Antibiotic Resistance“, Environmental Health Perspectives, Feb. 2007
    41. Doug Gurian-Sherman, “CAFOs Uncovered: The Untold Costs of Confined Animal Feeding Operations,”, Apr. 2008
    42. David Pimentel and Marcia Pimentel, “Sustainability of Meat-Based and Plant-Based Diets and the Environment,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003
    43. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, “US Soybean Production: A Comparison of Sustainable Production Systems for Conventional, Biotech, and Organic Soybeans,”, Apr. 2009
    44. Union of Concerned Scientists, “Roundup Ready Soybeans,” (accessed Jan. 19, 2011)
    45. David Pimentel, “Environmental and Economic Costs of the Application of Pesticides Primarily in the United States,” Environment, Development and Sustainability, 2005
    46. Stephen Byrnes, “The Myths of Vegetarianism,”, Jan. 2002
    47. Wolfgang Hermann, et al., “Vitamin B-12 Status, Particularly Holotranscobalamin II and Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations, and Hyperhomocysteinemia in Vegetarians,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, July 2003
    48. World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, “Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective,”, 2007
    49. Sally Fallon Morell, “Know Your Fats Introduction,”, Feb. 24, 2009
    50. Laura Wyness, E. Weichselbaum, et al., “Red Meat in the Diet: An Update,” Nutrition Bulletin of the British Nutrition Foundation, Feb. 16, 2011
    51. Joseph Mercola, “If You Eat Processed Meats, Are You Risking Your Life?,”, Jan. 22, 2011
    52. Penny M. Kris-Etherton, William S. Harris, and Lawrence J. Appel, “Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease,” Journal of the American Heart Association, 2002
    53. Karen Collins, “Fish Isn’t the Only Way to Get ‘Good’ Fat Omega-3. It’s Also Found in Seeds and Nut Oils, But Is It as Effective?,”, Sep. 8, 2006
    54. Gwendolyn Barcelo-Coblijn, Eric J Murphy, Rgia Othman, et al., “Flaxseed Oil and Fish-Oil Capsule Consumption Alters Human Red Blood Cell n-3 Fatty Acid Composition,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008
    55. Sally Fallon Morell, “Twenty-Two Reasons Not to Go Vegetarian,” (accessed Mar. 7, 2011)
    56. Jenny Chang-Claude, Silke Hermann, Ursula Eilber, et al., “Lifestyle Determinants and Mortality in German Vegetarians and Health-Conscious Persons: Results of a 21-Year Follow-Up,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Apr. 11, 2005
    57. Hillary Mayell, “Evolving to Eat Mush: How Meat Changed Our Bodies,” National Geographic, Feb. 18, 2005
    58. Sally Fallon Morell and Mary G. Enig, “Vitamin A Saga,”, Mar. 29, 2002
    59. Sabrina J Hickenbottom, et al., “Variability In Conversion of Beta Carotene to Vitamin A In Men As Measured by Using a Double-Tracer Study Design,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002
    60. State Environmental Resource Center, “Biodiversity Policy Issues Package,” (accessed Mar. 9, 2011)
    61. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, “Proteins Are Not Created Equal,” beefnutrition, 2009
    62. Milton R. Mills, “The Comparative Anatomy of Eating,”, Nov. 21, 2009
    63. Katharine Milton, “A Hypothesis to Explain the Role of Meat-Eating in Human Evolution,” Evolutionary Biology, 1999
    64. Erik J. Lindbloom, “Long-Term Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet,” American Family Physician, Apr. 1, 2009
    65. Jeff Welty, “Humane Slaughter Laws,” Law and Contemporary Problems, 2007
    66. Joby Warrick, “They Die Piece by Piece: In Overtaxed Plants, Humane Treatment of Cattle Is Often a Battle Lost,” Washington Post, Apr. 10, 2001
    67. Vegetarian Times, “Vegetarianism In America,” (accessed Mar. 10, 2011)
    68. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans,”, 1995
    69. Carole Davis and Etta Saltos, “Dietary Recommendations and How They Have Changed Over Time,” (accessed Mar. 10, 2011)
    70. Jan Parr, The Young Vegetarian’s Companion, 1996
    71. David Hurwitz, “Leonardo da Vinci’s Ethical Vegetarianism,”, July 19, 2002
    72. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), “About PETA,” (accessed Apr. 4, 2013)
    73. Roger Segelken, “Campbells’ New Book Blasts Corporate-Governmental-Academic Ties,”, Jan. 20, 2005
    74. Chris Masterjohn, “The China Study by T. Colin Campbell,” Wise Traditions, June 30, 2005
    75. Justin Nobel, “The Root of Vegetarianism,” (accessed Mar. 23, 2011)
    76. Gary E. Fraser and David J. Shavlik, “Ten Years of Life: Is it a Matter of Choice?,” Archives of Internal Medicine, July 9, 2001
    77. City of Bound Brook, “Bound Brook: Home of the Graham Cracker,” (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)
    78. NNDB, “John Harvey Kellogg,” (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)
    79. PR Watch, “Intolerable Speech? What Howard Lyman Told Oprah,” (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)
    80. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), “Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy -“Mad Cow Disease,” (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)
    81. Tristram Stuart, The Bloodless Revolution: A Cultural History of Vegetarianism from 1600 to Modern Times, 2006
    82. Peggy Whittier, “Wheatless Mondays and Meatless Tuesdays,” (accessed Mar. 25, 2011)
    83. Colin Spencer, The Heretics Feast: A History of Vegetarianism, 1995
    84. Casey Roberts, Clayton Spurgeon, and John Fowler, “Characteristics of the United States Organic Beef Industry,”, July 2007
    85. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, “Organic Standards for Livestock Production: Excerpts of USDA’s National Organic Program Regulations,”, Feb. 17, 2010
    86. Pramil N. Singh, Joan Sabaté, and Gary E Fraser, “Does Low Meat Consumption Increase Life Expectancy in Humans?,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003
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    88. Temple Grandin, “Animal Welfare in Slaughter Plants,” Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of American Association of Bovine Practitioners, 1996
    89. Ingrid Newkirk, “Temple Grandin: Helping the Animals We Can’t Save,”, Feb. 14, 2010
    90. United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Humane Methods of Slaughter Act: Weakness in USDA Enforcement,”, Mar. 4, 2010
    91. American Meat Institute, “Meat Matters: Animal Welfare in the Meat Industry,”, Oct. 2007
    92. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), “Environmental Interactions with Agricultural Production: Grazing Lands and Environmental Quality,”, Nov. 20, 2008
    93. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), and Earthjustice, “Livestock Grazing and the Environment,” (accessed Mar. 31, 2011)
    94. Center for Consumer Freedom, “About Us: What Is the Center for Consumer Freedom,” (accessed Apr. 7, 2011)
    95. Weston A. Price Foundation, “About the Foundation,”, Jan. 1, 2000
    96. Elizabeth Kolbert, “Should You Eat Meat?,” The New Yorker, Nov. 9, 2009
    97. David Martosko, “I’ll Have a Hamburger – Hold the Scare Tactics,”, July 2, 2009
    98. Derrick Jensen, “The Plants Respond: An Interview with Cleve Backster,” The Sun, July 1997
    99. Constitutional Rights Foundation, “Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle: Muckraking the Meat-Packing Industry,”, Fall 2008
    100. Temple Grandin and Mark Dessing, “Distress in Animals: Is it Fear, Pain, or Physical Stress?,”, Sep. 2003
    101. Mary Enig and Sally Fallon, “The Truth About Saturated Fats,” (accessed Apr. 12, 2011)
    102. Edward Giovannucci, Eric B. Rimm, Meir J. Stampfer, et al., “Intake of Fat, Meat, and Fiber in Relation to Risk of Colon Cancer in Men,” Cancer Research, May 1, 1994
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    104. United Nations Environment Programme, “Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production,”, June 2010
    105. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), “Global Hunger Declining, But Still Unacceptably High,”, Sep. 2010
    106. Helmi Risku-Norja, et al., “Dietary Choices and Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Assessment of Impact of Vegetarian and Organic Options at National Scale,” Progress in Industrial Ecology, 2009
    107. Roger Segelken, “US Could Feed 800 Million People with Grain That Livestock Eat,”, Aug. 7, 1997
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    118. Steven L. Davis, “The Least Harm Principle May Require That Humans Consume a Diet Containing Large Herbivores, Not a Vegan Diet,” Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 2003
    119. David S. Martin, “From Omnivore to Vegan: The Dietary Education of Bill Clinton,”, Aug. 18, 2011
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    128. Lisa Watson, ND, “40 Vegan Calcium Sources,” (accessed Mar. 27, 2012)
    129. “Natural/Organic Share of Total Beef (Dollar) 4th Quarter 2012,” (accessed Apr. 10, 2013)
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    131. Corinne Lestch and Ben Chapman, “School 244 in Flushing, Queens, Becomes First Public School in Nation to Serve Only Vegetarian Meals: Officials,”, Apr. 30, 2013
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    142. Bloomberg, “Staggering Shutdown in the Meat Industry Raises Concerns of a Global Shortfall,”, Apr. 24, 2020
    143. Max Reyes, “Beyond Meat Stock Price Soars amid Fear of a Coronavirus Beef and Pork Shortage,”, Apr. 25, 2020
    144. White House, “President Donald J. Trump Is Taking Action To Ensure The Safety Of Our Nation’s Food Supply Chain,, Apr. 28, 2020
    145. Ben Westcott and Shawn Deng, “China Has Made Eating Wild Animals Illegal after the Coronavirus Outbreak. But Ending the Trade Won’t Be Easy,”, Mar. 5, 2020


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