Footnotes & Sources


The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
Footnotes:
  1. American Dietetic Association, "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets" (629 KB) , Journal of the American Dietetic Association, May 27, 2009

  2. Vernon R. Young and Peter L. Pellett, "Plant Proteins in Relation to Human Protein and Amino Acid Nutrition," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1994

  3. Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Instututes of Health, "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron" (224 KB) , ods.od.nih.gov (accessed Dec. 13, 2010)

  4. Aloys L.A. Sesink, Denise S.M.L. Termont, et al., "Red Meat and Colon Cancer: The Cytotoxic and Hyperproliferative Effects of Dietary Heme," Cancer Research, Nov. 15, 1999

  5. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), "Protecting Your Bones" (47 KB) , www.pcrm.org (accessed Dec. 13, 2010)

  6. David S. Goldfarb and Fredric L. Cole, "Prevention of Recurrent Nephrolithiasis," American Family Physician, Nov. 15, 1999

  7. Timothy J. Key, et al., "Mortality in Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians: Detailed Findings from a Collaborative Analysis of 5 Prospective Studies," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1999

  8. Paul N. Appleby, Gwyneth K. Davey, and Timothy J. Key, "Hypertension and Blood Pressure Among Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans in EPIC-Oxford" (144 KB) , Public Health Nutrition, 2002

  9. Yiqing Song, et al., "A Prospective Study of Red Meat Consumption and Type 2 Disbetes in Middle-Aged and Elderly Women" (92 KB) , Diabetes Care, 2004

  10. David JA Jenkins, Cyril WC Kendall, and Augustine Marchie, et al., "Type 2 Diabetes and the Vegetarian Diet," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003

  11. EA Spencer, et al., "Diet and Body Mass Index in 38,000 EPIC-Oxford Meat-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans," International Journal of Obesity, 2003

  12. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), "Vegetarian Foods: Powerful for Health" (106 KB) , www.pcrm.org (accessed Dec. 23, 2010)

  13. Timothy J. Key, et al., "Health Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diets" (68 KB) , Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2006

  14. Christopher Joyce, "Food for Thought: Meat-Based Diet Made Us Smarter," www.npr.org, Aug. 3, 2010

  15. Courtney Hutchison, "Nutritionist Does Twinkie and Steak Diet, Loses Weight," www.abcnews.go.com, Sep. 30, 2010

  16. World Wildlife Fund (WWF), "How Low Can We Go? An Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the UK Food System and the Scope for Reduction by 2050" (2.5 MB) , wwf.org.uk, Jan. 18, 2010

  17. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), "Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options" (4.8 MB) , www.fao.org, Nov. 29, 2006

  18. US Department of Agriculture (USDA), "Import Share of US Food Consumption Stable at 11%" (44 KB) , www.ers.usda.gov, July 2003

  19. US Department of Agriculture (USDA), "US Forest Facts and Historical Trends" (112 KB) , www.fia.fs.fed.us, Sep. 2001

  20. Greenpeace, "Amazon Cattle Footprint - Mato Grosso: State of Destruction" (4.8 MB) , www.greenpeace.org, Jan. 29, 2009

  21. Reuters, "US Clears Brazil's SC Beef, Pork Imports," www.abipecs.org.br, Nov. 16, 2010

  22. John Robbins, "The Food Revolution: Once Upon a Planet, Part I," www.celsias.com, Nov. 11, 2007

  23. Association of Brazilian Beef Exporters, "Export Report - 2009," www.brazilianbeef.org.br (accessed Jan. 13, 2011)

  24. Nathan Fiala, "The Greenhouse Hamburger," Scientific American, Feb. 2009

  25. Marcia Kreith, "Water Inputs in California Food Production" (277 KB) , www.sakia.org, Sep. 27, 1991

  26. US Department of Agriculture (USDA), "US Beef and Cattle Industry: Background Statistics and Information," www.ers.usda.gov, July 10, 2010

  27. National Cattlemen's Beef Association, "The Environment and Cattle Production: Fact Sheet" (533 KB) , www.explorebeef.org (accessed Jan. 13, 2011)

  28. Lester R. Brown, "Growing Demand for Soybeans Threatens Amazon Rainforest," www.earth-policy.org, Dec. 30, 2009

  29. Thomas L. Fleischner, "Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America," Conservation Biology, Sep. 1994

  30. Peter S. Thorne, "Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations" (461 KB) , Environmental Health Perspectives, Feb. 2007

  31. New York Times, "We Are What We Eat," www.nytimes.com, Sep. 21, 2010

  32. Pew Commission on Industrial Farm Animal Production, "Putting Meat on the Table: Industrial Farm Animal Production in America" (7.2 MB) , www.ncifap.org, Apr. 28, 2008

  33. Polly Walker, Pamela Rhubart-Berg, Shawn McKenzie, Kristin Kelling, and Robert S Lawrence, "Public Health Implications of Meat Production and Consumption" (295 KB) , Journal of Public Health Nutrition, Mar. 2, 2005

  34. Humane Society of the United States, "Cruel Slaughter Practices," www.humanesociety.org (accessed Jan. 17, 2011)

  35. Humane Society of the United States, "Undercover at Smithfield Foods" (467 KB) , www.humanesociety.org (accessed Jan. 17, 2011)

  36. Farm Sanctuary, "The Welfare of Cattle in Beef Production" (700 KB) , www.farmsanctuary.org (accessed Jan. 17, 2011)

  37. Lynne U. Sneddon, et al., "Do Fishes Have Nociceptors? Evidence for the Evolution of a Vertebrate Sensory System," Proceedings of the Royal Academy of London, Apr. 30, 2003

  38. Boris Worm, et al., "Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services," Science, Nov. 3, 2006

  39. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), "What You Need to Know about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish" (150 KB) , water.epa.gov, May 24, 2004

  40. Mary J. Gilchrist, Christina Greko, David B. Wallinga, et al., "The Potential Role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations in Infectious Disease Epidemics and Antibiotic Resistance" (479 KB) , Environmental Health Perspectives, Feb. 2007

  41. Doug Gurian-Sherman, "CAFOs Uncovered: The Untold Costs of Confined Animal Feeding Operations" (5.6 MB) , www.ucsusa.org, Apr. 2008

  42. David Pimentel and Marcia Pimentel, "Sustainability of Meat-Based and Plant-Based Diets and the Environment," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003

  43. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, "US Soybean Production: A Comparison of Sustainable Production Systems for Conventional, Biotech, and Organic Soybeans" (523 KB) , www.soyconnection.com, Apr. 2009

  44. Union of Concerned Scientists, "Roundup Ready Soybeans," www.ucsusa.org (accessed Jan. 19, 2011)

  45. David Pimentel, "Environmental and Economic Costs of the Application of Pesticides Primarily in the United States," Environment, Development and Sustainability, 2005

  46. Stephen Byrnes, "The Myths of Vegetarianism" (257 KB) , www.westonaprice.org, Jan. 2002

  47. Wolfgang Hermann, et al., "Vitamin B-12 Status, Particularly Holotranscobalamin II and Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations, and Hyperhomocysteinemia in Vegetarians," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, July 2003

  48. World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, "Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective" (12 MB) , www.dietandcancerreport.org, 2007

  49. Sally Fallon Morell, "Know Your Fats Introduction," www.westonaprice.org, Feb. 24, 2009

  50. Laura Wyness, E. Weichselbaum, et al., "Red Meat in the Diet: An Update," Nutrition Bulletin of the British Nutrition Foundation, Feb. 16, 2011

  51. Joseph Mercola, "If You Eat Processed Meats, Are You Risking Your Life?," www.mercola.com, Jan. 22, 2011

  52. Penny M. Kris-Etherton, William S. Harris, and Lawrence J. Appel, "Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease" (444 KB) , Journal of the American Heart Association, 2002

  53. Karen Collins, "Fish Isn't the Only Way to Get ‘Good’ Fat Omega-3. It's Also Found in Seeds and Nut Oils, But Is It as Effective?," www.msnbc.com, Sep. 8, 2006

  54. Gwendolyn Barcelo-Coblijn, Eric J Murphy, Rgia Othman, et al., "Flaxseed Oil and Fish-Oil Capsule Consumption Alters Human Red Blood Cell n-3 Fatty Acid Composition," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008

  55. Sally Fallon Morell, "Twenty-Two Reasons Not to Go Vegetarian," www.westonaprice.org (accessed Mar. 7, 2011)

  56. Jenny Chang-Claude, Silke Hermann, Ursula Eilber, et al., "Lifestyle Determinants and Mortality in German Vegetarians and Health-Conscious Persons: Results of a 21-Year Follow-Up," Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Apr. 11, 2005

  57. Hillary Mayell, "Evolving to Eat Mush: How Meat Changed Our Bodies," National Geographic, Feb. 18, 2005

  58. Sally Fallon Morell and Mary G. Enig, "Vitamin A Saga," www.westonaprice.org, Mar. 29, 2002

  59. Sabrina J Hickenbottom, et al., "Variability In Conversion of Beta Carotene to Vitamin A In Men As Measured by Using a Double-Tracer Study Design," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002

  60. State Environmental Resource Center, "Biodiversity Policy Issues Package," www.serconline.org (accessed Mar. 9, 2011)

  61. National Cattlemen's Beef Association, "Proteins Are Not Created Equal," www.beefnutrition, 2009

  62. Milton R. Mills, "The Comparative Anatomy of Eating," www.vegsource.com, Nov. 21, 2009

  63. Katharine Milton, "A Hypothesis to Explain the Role of Meat-Eating in Human Evolution," Evolutionary Biology, 1999

  64. Erik J. Lindbloom, "Long-Term Benefits of a Vegetarian Diet," American Family Physician, Apr. 1, 2009

  65. Jeff Welty, "Humane Slaughter Laws" (296 KB) , Law and Contemporary Problems, 2007

  66. Joby Warrick, "They Die Piece by Piece: In Overtaxed Plants, Humane Treatment of Cattle Is Often a Battle Lost," Washington Post, Apr. 10, 2001

  67. Vegetarian Times, "Vegetarianism In America," www.vegetariantimes.com (accessed Mar. 10, 2011)

  68. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), "Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans" (234 KB) , www.cnpp.usda.gov, 1995

  69. Carole Davis and Etta Saltos, "Dietary Recommendations and How They Have Changed Over Time," www.ers.usda.gov (accessed Mar. 10, 2011)

  70. Jan Parr, The Young Vegetarian's Companion, 1996

  71. David Hurwitz, "Leonardo da Vinci's Ethical Vegetarianism," www.ivu.org, July 19, 2002

  72. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), "About PETA," www.peta.org (accessed Apr. 4, 2013)

  73. Roger Segelken, "Campbells' New Book Blasts Corporate-Governmental-Academic Ties," www.news.cornell.edu, Jan. 20, 2005

  74. Chris Masterjohn, "The China Study by T. Colin Campbell," Wise Traditions, June 30, 2005

  75. Justin Nobel, "The Root of Vegetarianism," www.audubonmagazine.org (accessed Mar. 23, 2011)

  76. Gary E. Fraser and David J. Shavlik, "Ten Years of Life: Is it a Matter of Choice?," Archives of Internal Medicine, July 9, 2001

  77. City of Bound Brook, "Bound Brook: Home of the Graham Cracker," www.boundbrook-nj.org (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)

  78. NNDB, "John Harvey Kellogg," www.nndb.com (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)

  79. PR Watch, "Intolerable Speech? What Howard Lyman Told Oprah," www.prwatch.org (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)

  80. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), "Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy -"Mad Cow Disease," www.fsis.usda.gov (accessed Mar. 24, 2011)

  81. Tristram Stuart, The Bloodless Revolution: A Cultural History of Vegetarianism from 1600 to Modern Times, 2006

  82. Peggy Whittier, "Wheatless Mondays and Meatless Tuesdays," www.newyorkhistoryreview.com (accessed Mar. 25, 2011)

  83. Colin Spencer, The Heretics Feast: A History of Vegetarianism, 1995

  84. Casey Roberts, Clayton Spurgeon, and John Fowler, "Characteristics of the United States Organic Beef Industry" (2.4 MB) , www.aces.nmsu.edu, July 2007

  85. National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service, "Organic Standards for Livestock Production: Excerpts of USDA's National Organic Program Regulations" (628 KB) , www.attra.ncat.org, Feb. 17, 2010

  86. Pramil N. Singh, Joan Sabaté, and Gary E Fraser, "Does Low Meat Consumption Increase Life Expectancy in Humans?," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003

  87. Cargill, "High-Quality Products," www.cargill.com (accessed Mar. 30, 2011)

  88. Temple Grandin, "Animal Welfare in Slaughter Plants," Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of American Association of Bovine Practitioners, 1996

  89. Ingrid Newkirk, "Temple Grandin: Helping the Animals We Can't Save," prime.peta.org, Feb. 14, 2010

  90. United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), "Humane Methods of Slaughter Act: Weakness in USDA Enforcement" (87 KB) , www.gao.gov, Mar. 4, 2010

  91. American Meat Institute, "Meat Matters: Animal Welfare in the Meat Industry," www.meatmattersinfo.org, Oct. 2007

  92. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), "Environmental Interactions with Agricultural Production: Grazing Lands and Environmental Quality," www.ers.usda.gov, Nov. 20, 2008

  93. Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), and Earthjustice, "Livestock Grazing and the Environment" (142 KB) , www.earthjustice.org (accessed Mar. 31, 2011)

  94. Center for Consumer Freedom, "About Us: What Is the Center for Consumer Freedom," www.consumerfreedom.com (accessed Apr. 7, 2011)

  95. Weston A. Price Foundation, "About the Foundation," www.westonaprice.org, Jan. 1, 2000

  96. Elizabeth Kolbert, "Should You Eat Meat?," The New Yorker, Nov. 9, 2009

  97. David Martosko, "I'll Have a Hamburger - Hold the Scare Tactics," www.consumerfreedom.com, July 2, 2009

  98. Derrick Jensen, "The Plants Respond: An Interview with Cleve Backster," The Sun, July 1997

  99. Constitutional Rights Foundation, "Upton Sinclair's The Jungle: Muckraking the Meat-Packing Industry," www.crf-usa.org, Fall 2008

  100. Temple Grandin and Mark Dessing, "Distress in Animals: Is it Fear, Pain, or Physical Stress?" (56 KB) , www.grandin.com, Sep. 2003

  101. Mary Enig and Sally Fallon, "The Truth About Saturated Fats," www.health-report.co.uk (accessed Apr. 12, 2011)

  102. Edward Giovannucci, Eric B. Rimm, Meir J. Stampfer, et al., "Intake of Fat, Meat, and Fiber in Relation to Risk of Colon Cancer in Men," Cancer Research, May 1, 1994

  103. Humane Society of the United States, "An HSUS Report: The Welfare of Animals in the Veal Industry" (254 KB) , www.humanesociety.org (accessed Apr. 12, 2011)

  104. United Nations Environment Programme, "Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production" (5.5 MB) , www.uneptie.org, June 2010

  105. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), "Global Hunger Declining, But Still Unacceptably High" (147 KB) , www.fao.org, Sep. 2010

  106. Helmi Risku-Norja, et al., "Dietary Choices and Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Assessment of Impact of Vegetarian and Organic Options at National Scale," Progress in Industrial Ecology, 2009

  107. Roger Segelken, "US Could Feed 800 Million People with Grain That Livestock Eat," www.cornell.edu, Aug. 7, 1997

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  109. United States Department of Labor, "Industries with the Highest Nonfatal Total Cases, Incidence Rates for Injuries and Illnesses, Private Industry, 1998," stats.bls.gov, Dec. 1999

  110. Erick Schlosser, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, 2001

  111. Human Rights Watch, "Abuses Against Workers Taint US Meat and Poultry," www.hrw.org, Jan. 24, 2005

  112. United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Fatal Occupational Injuries by Occupation and Selected Event or Exposure, 2009" (116 KB) , www.bls.gov, Aug. 19, 2010

  113. United States Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, "Fatal Occupational Injuries by Industry and Selected Event or Exposure, 2009" (116 KB) , www.bls.gov, Aug. 19, 2010

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  115. Natural Resources Defense Council, "Facts about Pollution from Livestock Farms," www.nrdc.org (accessed Apr. 15, 2011)

  116. Sigurdar Sigurdarson, et al., "School Proximity to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Prevalence of Asthma in Students," Chest Journal, 2006

  117. CME Group, "Daily Livestock Report," www.dailylivestockreport.com, Oct. 14, 2010

  118. Steven L. Davis, "The Least Harm Principle May Require That Humans Consume a Diet Containing Large Herbivores, Not a Vegan Diet," Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 2003

  119. David S. Martin, "From Omnivore to Vegan: The Dietary Education of Bill Clinton," www.cnn.com, Aug. 18, 2011

  120. William Stroup, PhD, "Meat, Ethics, and the Case of John Wesley," in Orthodoxy and Heresy in Eighteenth Century Society: Essays from the DeBartolo Conference, Eds. Regina Hewitt and Pat Rogers, 2002

  121. An Pan, PhD, and Qui Sun, MD, ScD, et al., "Red Meat Consumption and Mortality," Archives of Internal Medicine, Mar. 12, 2012

  122. Rob M. van Dam, MSC, et al., "Dietary Fat and Meat Intake in Relation to Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men," Diabetes Care, Mar. 2002

  123. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), "Meat and Meat Products in Human Nutrition in Developing Countries," www.fao.org, 1992

  124. Susan E. Berkow, PhD, and Neal Barnard, MD, "Vegetarian Diets and Weight Status," Nutrition Reviews, Apr. 2006

  125. University of Maryland Medical Center, "Omega-3 Fatty Acid," www.umm.edu (accessed Feb. 27, 2013)

  126. Earth Policy Institute, "Peak Meat: US Meat Consumption Falling," www.earth-policy.org, Mar. 7, 2012

  127. Frank Newport, "In US, 5% Consider Themselves Vegetarians," www.gallup.com, July 26, 2012

  128. Lisa Watson, ND, "40 Vegan Calcium Sources," www.drlisawatson.com (accessed Mar. 27, 2012)

  129. "Natural/Organic Share of Total Beef (Dollar) 4th Quarter 2012," www.beefretail.org (accessed Apr. 10, 2013)

  130. Michael J. Orlich, MD, et al., "Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2," JAMA Internal Medicine, June 3, 2013

  131. Corinne Lestch and Ben Chapman, "School 244 in Flushing, Queens, Becomes First Public School in Nation to Serve Only Vegetarian Meals: Officials," nydailynews.com, Apr. 30, 2013

  132. Morgan E. Levine, PhD, and Jorge A. Suarez, et al., "Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population," Cell Metabolism, Mar. 2014

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